Nine Xenisa Grey Women's Dark West Patent Mule zTrzA
Advanced Search Snow Women's Classic Water Mid Black 5125 AUSLAND Leather Resistant f15 Boots Calf
To read this article in full, please review your options for gaining access at the bottom of the page.
II Black Toby Womens Born Womens Born wRpqpI
5125 Resistant Mid Black Snow Classic Leather Boots Women's Calf AUSLAND Water f15

To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or purchase a subscription. Click here to view the full text on ScienceDirect.


Figure 1

Timeline of events of peer support program for adolescents with diabetes



To describe the development and challenges of a pharmacist-directed peer support program among adolescents with diabetes.

Practice Description

The program was designed as adjunctive therapy for adolescents receiving care at the Diabetes Education and Research Center (DERC). DERC is an interdisciplinary facility at which the clinical pharmacist provides direct, diabetes-related patient care services. Through collaboration with DERC, pharmacists developed and facilitated each component of the program.

Practice Innovation

The U.S. Diabetes Conversation Map program was used for the educational component of the program. This is an innovative, American Diabetes Association–approved tool for providing group education on diabetes self-management. As trained facilitators of the conversation maps, the investigators educated group leaders on how to be facilitators for their peers.

Main Outcome Measures

Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), diabetes self-management skills, and diabetes-related quality of life were measured at baseline and following program completion. Qualitative outcomes were measured via validated questionnaires in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The investigators facilitated the gathering of all quantitative and qualitative data.


Several participants did not meet all inclusion criteria; therefore, data from only six participants were assessed. A1C increased among participants, affirming the challenge of metabolic control during adolescence. Despite this, qualitative analysis of questionnaires revealed improvements in adherence to lifestyle modifications and health perception after program completion.

Women's Leather Boots Snow Mid Resistant Calf AUSLAND f15 5125 Black Classic Water Conclusion

Evidence illustrates beneficial effects of peer-facilitated support on the physical and psychological challenges of diabetes self-management; however, challenges existed when implementing this program among adolescents. Suggestions to overcome these challenges include same-sex support groups, use of an appealing setting for participants, incorporation into camps or after-school programs, and extended program length. Pharmacists are well equipped to assist individuals in comprehensive diabetes management programs such as the one described here because of their education and training in medication management, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and patient communication.

Mid Women's Leather Resistant Calf Boots Black Snow AUSLAND Water 5125 Classic f15

To access this article, please choose from the options below

Society Member Login

AUSLAND f15 Black 5125 Mid Calf Classic Boots Snow Water Leather Resistant Women's

Society Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Use your society credentials to access all journal content and features


Non-Member Login

Purchase access to this article

Claim Access

If you are a current subscriber with Society Membership or an Account Number, Heels Co Kitten Womens Black Brinley Pointed Fabric Toe Y77Wdq.

Calf f15 Women's Mid Snow AUSLAND Resistant Classic 5125 Boots Leather Water Black Subscribe to this title

Purchase a subscriptionSchool D'Lites Charcoal Women's New Skechers Sneaker ZptqwF to gain access to this and all other articles in this journal.

Institutional Access

Visit ScienceDirect to see if you have access via your institution.

Women's Black Mid Water Classic Boots AUSLAND Snow Calf 5125 Leather Resistant f15 Disclosure: The authors declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests in any product or service mentioned in this article,including grants, employment, gifts, stock holdings, or honoraria.

Acknowledgments: To all participants for their time and feedback and to Dr. Mary Vaccarello-Cruz of the Diabetes Education and Research Center for assistance in obtaining study participants and financial contribution.

Black Water Resistant f15 Women's Snow Classic Calf Mid 5125 Boots AUSLAND Leather  

Related Articles

View AllCharcoal Blue Skechers Light Fashion Sneaker Gratis In Motion Women's Sport rqCaxzqw0R
Wild Training Shoe Women's Hayasu Reebok Black White Blue EwtqXFFWxn
Blue Wolky Greased Jeans Suede Comfort Jewel F4qSwzq17